go to site Twenty-four digits, or six palms, were a small cubit. The digit was in turn subdivided.
The 14th digit on a cubit stick was marked off into 16 equal parts. The next digit was divided into 15 parts, and so on, to the 28th digit, which was divided into 2 equal parts.
Thus, measurement could be made to digit fractions with any denominator from 2 through The accuracy of the cubit stick is attested by the dimensions of the Great Pyramid of Giza ; although thousands were employed in building it, its sides vary no more than 0. The Egyptians developed methods and instruments for measuring land at a very early date. The annual flood of the Nile River created a need for benchmarks and surveying techniques so that property boundaries could be readily reestablished when the water receded.
The Egyptian weight system appears to have been founded on a unit called the kite , with a decimal ratio, 10 kite s equaling 1 deben and 10 deben s equaling 1 sep.
Over the long duration of Egyptian history, the weight of the kite varied from period to period, ranging all the way from 4. Approximately 3, different weights have been recovered from ancient Egypt , some in basic geometric shapes, others in human and animal forms. Egyptian liquid measures, from large to small, were ro , hin , hekat , khar , and cubic cubit.
Among the earliest of all known weights is the Babylonian mina , which in one surviving form weighed about grams about 23 ounces and in another about grams about 34 ounces.
Archaeologists have also found weights of 5 minas, in the shape of a duck, and a mina weight in the form of a swan. The shekel, familiar from the Bible as a standard Hebrew coin and weight, was originally Babylonian. Most of the Babylonian weights and measures, carried in commerce throughout the Middle East, were gradually adopted by other countries.
The basic Babylonian unit of length was the kus about mm or The Babylonian liquid measure, qa also spelled ka , was the volume of a cube of one handbreadth about 99 to millilitres or about 6. The cube, however, had to contain a weight of one great mina of water.
Information must be verifiable and based on reliable published sources. In addition, these measures must support superior performance in all functions and processes related to the area being measured. The text's numerous illustrations, examples, class discussion items, and chapter questions and exercises provide an opportunity to understand and apply mechatronics concepts to actual problems encountered in engineering practice. JCGM [ 19 ] points out that the use of these guard bands provides a way to limit the probability of making an incorrect conformance decision based on measurement information. He discovered that the mercury slipped down into the tube. Rather than reducing the performance report to an index which requires judgmental weighting and makes the measurement even more indirect, a graphical representation provides a more satisfying and accurate method for the following reasons:.
The qa was a subdivision of two other units; qa equaled 60 gin or 1 gur. The gur represented a volume of almost litres 80 U. Hebrew standards were based on the relationship between the mina, the talent the basic unit , and the shekel.
The sacred mina was equal to 60 shekels and the sacred talent to 3, shekels, or 50 sacred minas. The Talmudic mina equaled 25 shekels; the Talmudic talent equaled 1, shekels, or 60 Talmudic minas.
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The volumes of the several Hebrew standards of liquid measure are not definitely known; the bat may have contained about 37 litres nearly 10 U. In the 1st millennium bce commercial domination of the Mediterranean passed into the hands of the Greeks and then the Romans.
A basic Greek unit of length was the finger The coincidence with the Egyptian 24 digits equaling 1 small cubit suggests what is altogether probable on the basis of the commercial history of the era , that the Greeks derived their measures partly from the Egyptians and partly from the Babylonians, probably via the Phoenicians, who for a long time dominated vast expanses of the Mediterranean trade.
A basic Greek unit of weight was the talent equal to Roman linear measures were based on the Roman standard foot pes. This unit was divided into 16 digits or into 12 inches.
In both cases its length was the same. Metrologists have come to differing conclusions concerning its exact length, but the currently accepted modern equivalents are mm or Larger linear units were always expressed in feet.
Five Roman feet made the pace passus , equivalent to 1. The most frequently used itinerary measures were the furlong or stade stadium , the mile mille passus , and the league leuga.
The stade consisted of Roman feet metres or The mile was 5, Roman feet 1, metres or 4, feet or 8 stades. The league had 7, Roman feet 2, metres or 7, feet or 1, paces. Prior to the 3rd century bce the standard for all Roman weights was the as , or Old Etruscan or Oscan pound, of 4, grains It was divided into 12 ounces of grains In bce a new standard was created when a silver denarius was struck to a weight of The principal Roman capacity measures were the hemina , sextarius , modius , and amphora for dry products and the quartarus , sextarius , congius , urna , and amphora for liquids.
Since all of these were based on the sextarius and since no two extant sextarii are identical, a mean generally agreed upon today is The hemina , or half- sextarius , based on this mean was Sixteen of these sextarii made the modius of This is important as one incorrect calculation, conversion or measurements will affect a dosage, and can potentially harm a patient.
Possessing a working knowledge of the pharmaceutical systems of measurement will only benefit a pharmaceutical professional.
The metric system is a decimal system with all multiples and divisions based on a factor of This system is also the most commonly used system of measurement for pharmacy calculations, as it allows for quick and easy conversions between different systems of measurement. When using the metric system to convert from smaller to larger, a person would simply move the decimal to the appropriate number of places to the left.
When converting from larger to smaller, a person would move the decimal the necessary number of places to the right.
The apothecary system is one of the three systems of measurement used in pharmacy calculations, which uses weight and volume as divisions of measurement. This includes measurements of ounces, gallons, pints and quarts. Traditionally, this system originated as the system of weights and measures for dispensing and prescribing medications for apothecaries, the historical pharmacists, and alchemists.
Today, pharmacists still commonly use the apothecary system as their main system of measurement.