Anaximenes the philosopher wrote the following letters: Anaximenes to Pythagoras. He went out from the court of his house at night, as was his custom, with his maidservant to view the stars, and, forgetting where he was, as he gazed, he got to the edge of a steep slope and fell over. In such wise have the Milesians lost their astronomer. Let us who were his pupils cherish his memory, and let it be cherished by our children and pupils; and let us not cease to entertain one another with his words.
Let all our discourse begin with a reference to Thales. For the sons of Aeaces work incessant mischief, and Miletus is never without tyrants. The king of the Medes is another terror to us, not indeed so long as we are willing to pay tribute; but the Ionians are on the point of going to war with the Medes to secure their common freedom, and once we are at war we have no more hope of safety. How then can Anaximenes any longer think of studying the heavens when threatened with destruction or slavery? Meanwhile you find favour with the people of Croton and with the other Greeks in Italy ; and pupils come to you even from Sicily.
He was a pupil of Anaximenes , and was the first who set mind above matter, for at the beginning of his treatise, which is composed in attractive and dignified language, he says, "All things were together; then came Mind and set them in order. He was eminent for wealth and noble birth, and furthermore for magnanimity, in that he gave up his patrimony to his relations. When some one inquired, "Have you no concern in your native land? He is said to have been twenty years old at the invasion of Xerxes and to have lived seventy-two years.
Apollodorus in his Chronology says that he was born in the 70th Olympiad, and died in the first year of the 88th Olympiad. He began to study philosophy at Athens in the archonship of Callias when he was twenty; Demetrius of Phalerum states this in his list of archons; and at Athens they say he remained for thirty years.
He took as his principles the homoeomeries or homogeneous molecules; for just as gold consists of fine particles which are called gold-dust, so he held the whole universe to be compounded of minute bodies having parts homogeneous to themselves. His moving principle was Mind; of bodies, he said, some, like earth, were heavy, occupying the region below, others, light like fire, held the region above, while water and air were intermediate in position.
For in this way over the earth, which is flat, the sea sinks down after the moisture has been evaporated by the sun. He held the Milky Way to be a reflection of the light of stars which are not shone upon by the sun; comets to be a conjunction of planets which emit flames; shooting-stars to be a sort of sparks thrown off by the air.
He held that winds arise when the air is rarefied by the sun's heat; that thunder is a clashing together of the clouds, lightning their violent friction; an earthquake a subsidence of air into the earth. Animals were produced from moisture, heat, and an earthy substance; later the species were propagated by generation from one another, males from the right side, females from the left.
Hence Euripides , who was his pupil, in the Phathon calls the sun itself a "golden clod. When some one asked him if the hills at Lampsacus would ever become sea, he replied, "Yes, it only needs time. Anaxagoras was also the first to publish a book with diagrams. Silenus in the first book of his History gives the archonship of Demylus as the date when the meteoric stone fell,. Of the trial of Anaxagoras different accounts are given. Sotion in his Succession of the Philosophers says that he was indicted by Cleon on a charge of impiety, because he declared the sun to be a mass of red-hot metal; that his pupil Pericles defended him, and he was fined five talents and banished.
Satyrus in his Lives says that the prosecutor was Thucydides , the opponent of Pericles , and the charge one of treasonable correspondence with Persia as well as of impiety; and that sentence of death was passed on Anaxagoras by default. That he buried his sons with his own hands is asserted by Demetrius of Phalerum in his work On Old Age. Hermippus in his Lives says that he was confined in the prison pending his execution; that Pericles came forward and asked the people whether they had any fault to find with him in his own public career; to which they replied that they had not.
Let me prevail upon you to release him. So much then on the subject of his trial. He was supposed to have borne Democritus a grudge because he had failed to get into communication with him. At length he retired to Lampsacus and there died. And when the magistrates of the city asked if there was anything he would like done for him, he replied that he would like them to grant an annual holiday to the boys in the month in which he died; and the custom is kept up to this day.
I also have written an epigram upon him: The sun's a molten mass, Quoth Anaxagoras ; This is his crime, his life must pay the price. Pericles from that fate Rescued his friend too late; His spirit crushed, by his own hand he dies. There have been three other men who bore the name of Anaxagoras [of whom no other writer gives a complete list].
The first was a rhetorician of the school of Isocrates ; the second a sculptor, mentioned by Antigonus ; the third a grammarian, pupil of Zenodotus. Archelaus was the teacher of Socrates. He was called the physicist inasmuch as with him natural philosophy came to an end, as soon as Socrates had introduced ethics. It would seem that Archelaus himself also treated of ethics, for he has discussed laws and goodness and justice; Socrates took the subject from him and, having improved it to the utmost, was regarded as its inventor. Archelaus laid down that there were two causes of growth or becoming, heat and cold; that living things were produced from slime; and that what is just and what is base depends not upon nature but upon convention.
Water is melted by heat and produces on the one hand earth in so far as by the action of fire it sinks and coheres, while on the other hand it generates air in so far as it overflows on all sides. Hence the earth is confined by the air, and the air by the circumambient fire. Living things, he holds, are generated from the earth when it is heated and throws off slime of the consistency of milk to serve as a sort of nourishment, and in this same way the earth produced man.
He was the first who explained the production of sound as being the concussion of the air, and the formation of the sea in hollow places as due to its filtering through the earth. He declared the sun to be the largest of the heavenly bodies and the universe to be unlimited. There have been three other men who bore the name of Archelaus : the topographer who described the countries traversed by Alexander ; the author of a treatise on Natural Curiosities; and lastly a rhetorician who wrote a handbook on his art.
It was thought that he helped Euripides to make his plays; hence Mnesimachus writes: This new play of Euripides is The Phrygians ; and Socrates provides the wood for frying. And again he calls Euripides "an engine riveted by Socrates. Pray why so solemn, why this lofty air? I've every right; I'm helped by Socrates. Aristophanes in The Clouds: 'Tis he composes for Euripides Those clever plays, much sound and little sense. When Anaxagoras was condemned, he became a pupil of Archelaus the physicist; Aristoxenus asserts that Archelaus was very fond of him.
Duris makes him out to have been a slave and to have been employed on stonework, and the draped figures of the Graces on the Acropolis have by some been attributed to him. Hence the passage in Timon 's Silli : From these diverged the sculptor, a prater about laws, the enchanter of Greece, inventor of subtle arguments, the sneerer who mocked at fine speeches, half- Attic in his mock humility. He was formidable in public speaking, according to Idomeneus ;. And Aristophanes attacks him in his plays for making the worse appear the better reason. For Favorinus in his Miscellaneous History says Socrates and his pupil Aeschines were the first to teach rhetoric; and this is confirmed by Idomeneus in his work on the Socratic circle.
Again, he was the first who discoursed on the conduct of life, and the first philosopher who was tried and put to death. Aristoxenus , the son of Spintharus , says of him that he made money; he would at all events invest sums, collect the interest accruing, and then, when this was expended, put out the principal again. Demetrius of Byzantium relates that Crito removed him from his workshop and educated him, being struck by his beauty of soul;.
So much so that, when he had been kicked, and some one expressed surprise at his taking it so quietly, Socrates rejoined, "Should I have taken the law of a donkey , supposing that he had kicked me? The rest of his life he stayed at home and engaged all the more keenly in argument with anyone who would converse with him, his aim being not to alter his opinion but to get at the truth. They relate that Euripides gave him the treatise of Heraclitus and asked his opinion upon it, and that his reply was, "The part I understand is excellent, and so too is, I dare say, the part I do not understand; but it needs a Delian diver to get to the bottom of it.
At all events he served on the expedition to Amphipolis ; and when in the battle of Delium Xenophon had fallen from his horse , he stepped in and saved his life. Again, he served at Potidaea , whither he had gone by sea, as land communications were interrupted by the war; and while there he is said to have remained a whole night without changing his position, and to have won the prize of valour. But he resigned it to Alcibiades , for whom he cherished the tenderest affection, according to Aristippus in the fourth book of his treatise On the Luxury of the Ancients.
Ion of Chios relates that in his youth he visited Samos in the company of Archelaus ; and Aristotle that he went to Delphi ; he went also to the Isthmus , according to Favorinus in the first book of his Memorabilia. He was a man of great independence and dignity of character. Pamphila in the seventh book of her Commentaries tells how Alcibiades once offered him a large site on which to build a house; but he replied, "Suppose, then, I wanted shoes and you offered me a whole hide to make a pair with, would it not be ridiculous in me to take it?
He showed his contempt for Archelaus of Macedon and Scopas of Cranon and Eurylochus of Larissa by refusing to accept their presents or to go to their court. He was so orderly in his way of life that on several occasions when pestilence broke out in Athens he was the only man who escaped infection. By her he had Sophroniscus and Menexenus. Others make Myrto his first wife; while some writers, including Satyrus and Hieronymus of Rhodes , affirm that they were both his wives at the same time. For they say that the Athenians were short of men and, wishing to increase the population, passed a decree permitting a citizen to marry one Athenian woman and have children by another; and that Socrates accordingly did so.
He prided himself on his plain living, and never asked a fee from anyone. He used to say that he most enjoyed the food which was least in need of condiment, and the drink which made him feel the least hankering for some other drink; and that he was nearest to the gods in that he had the fewest wants. This may be seen from the Comic poets, who in the act of ridiculing him give him high praise. Thus Aristophanes : O man that justly desirest great wisdom, how blessed will be thy life amongst Athenians and Greeks, retentive of memory and thinker that thou art, with endurance of toil for thy character; never art thou weary whether standing or walking, never numb with cold, never hungry for breakfast; from wine and from gross feeding and all other frivolities thou dost turn away.
You come to join us, Socrates , worthiest of a small band and emptiest by far! You are a robust fellow. Where can we get you a proper coat? Your sorry plight is an insult to the cobblers. And yet, hungry as he is, this man has never stooped to flatter. This disdainful, lofty spirit of his is also noticed by Aristophanes when he says: Because you stalk along the streets, rolling your eyes, and endure, barefoot, many a hardship, and gaze up at us [the clouds]. And yet at times he would even put on fine clothes to suit the occasion, as in Plato 's Symposium, where he is on his way to Agathon 's house.
Lysis , again, he turned, by exhortation, into a most virtuous character. For he had the skill to draw his arguments from facts. And when his son Lamprocles was violently angry with his mother, Socrates made him feel ashamed of himself, as I believe Xenophon has told us. When Plato 's brother Glaucon was desirous of entering upon politics, Socrates dissuaded him, as Xenophon relates, because of his want of experience; but on the contrary he encouraged Charmides to take up politics because he had a gift that way. Glauconides demanded that he should be acquired for the state as if he were some pheasant or peacock.
He used to say it was strange that, if you asked a man how many sheep he had, he could easily tell you the precise number; whereas he could not name his friends or say how many he had, so slight was the value he set upon them. Seeing Euclides keenly interested in eristic arguments, he said to him: "You will be able to get on with sophists, Euclides , but with men not at all. He would extol leisure as the best of possessions, according to Xenophon in the Symposium. There is, he said, only one good, that is, knowledge, and only one evil, that is, ignorance; wealth and good birth bring their possessor no dignity, but on the contrary evil.
At all events, when some one told him that Antisthenes ' mother was a Thracian, he replied, "Nay, did you expect a man so noble to have been born of two Athenian parents? As Xenophon relates in the Symposium, it was his regular habit to dance, thinking that such exercise helped to keep the body in good condition. He used to say that his supernatural sign warned him beforehand of the future; that to make a good start was no trifling advantage, but a trifle turned the scale; and that he knew nothing except just the fact of his ignorance.
He said that, when people paid a high price for fruit which had ripened early, they must despair of seeing the fruit ripen at the proper season. And, being once asked in what consisted the virtue of a young man, he said, "In doing nothing to excess. For he said it was absurd to make a hue and cry about a slave who could not be found, and to allow virtue to perish in this way. Some one asked him whether he should marry or not, and received the reply, "Whichever you do you will repent it. He recommended to the young the constant use of the mirror, to the end that handsome men might acquire a corresponding behaviour, and ugly men conceal their defects by education.
Of the mass of men who do not count he said it was as if some one should object to a single tetradrachm as counterfeit and at the same time let a whole heap made up of just such pieces pass as genuine. Aeschines said to him, "I am a poor man and have nothing else to give, but I offer you myself," and Socrates answered, "Nay, do you not see that you are offering me the greatest gift of all? When his wife said, "You suffer unjustly," he retorted, "Why, would you have me suffer justly?
When Xanthippe first scolded him and then drenched him with water, his rejoinder was, "Did I not say that Xanthippe 's thunder would end in rain? And you do not mind the cackle of geese. For Anytus could not endure to be ridiculed by Socrates , and so in the first place stirred up against him Aristophanes and his friends; then afterwards he helped to persuade Meletus to indict him on a charge of impiety and corrupting the youth.
The indictment was brought by Meletus , and the speech was delivered by Polyeuctus , according to Favorinus in his Miscellaneous History. The speech was written by Polycrates the sophist, according to Hermippus ; but some say that it was by Anytus. Lycon the demagogue had made all the needful preparations. Favorinus in the first book of his Memorabilia declares that the speech of Polycrates against Socrates is not authentic; for he mentions the rebuilding of the walls by Conon , which did not take place till six years after the death of Socrates.
And this is the case. He is also guilty of corrupting the youth. The penalty demanded is death. Get down! Eubulides indeed says he offered. He was put in prison, and a few days afterwards drank the hemlock, after much noble discourse which Plato records in the Phaedo. Further, according to some, he composed a paean beginning: All hail, Apollo , Delos ' lord!
Hail Artemis , ye noble pair! Dionysodorus denies that he wrote the paean. He also composed a fable of Aesop , not very skilfully, beginning: "Judge not, ye men of Corinth ," Aesop cried, "Of virtue as the jury-courts decide. They banished the other accusers but put Meletus to death; they honoured Socrates with a bronze statue, the work of Lysippus , which they placed in the hall of processions. And no sooner did Anytus visit Heraclea than the people of that town expelled him on that very day.
Not only in the case of Socrates but in very many others the Athenians repented in this way. For they fined Homer so says Heraclides 50 drachmae for a madman, and said Tyrtaeus was beside himself, and they honoured Astydamas before Aeschylus and his brother poets with a bronze statue. He was born, according to Apollodorus in his Chronology, in the archonship of Apsephion , in the fourth year of the 77th Olympiad, on the 6th day of the month of Thargelion , when the Athenians purify their city, which according to the Delians is the birthday of Artemis.
He died in the first year of the 95th Olympiad at the age of seventy. With this Demetrius of Phalerum agrees; but some say he was sixty when he died. In my opinion Socrates discoursed on physics as well as on ethics, since he holds some conversations about providence, even according to Xenophon , who, however, declares that he only discussed ethics. But Plato , after mentioning Anaxagoras and certain other physicists in the Apology, treats for his own part themes which Socrates disowned, although he puts everything into the mouth of Socrates. Aristotle relates that a magician came from Syria to Athens and, among other evils with which he threatened Socrates , predicted that he would come to a violent end.
He was sharply criticized, according to Aristotle in his third book On Poetry, by a certain Antilochus of Lemnos , and by Antiphon the soothsayer, just as Pythagoras was by Cylon of Croton , or as Homer was assailed in his lifetime by Syagrus , and after his death by Xenophanes of Colophon. I must first speak of Xenophon ; Antisthenes will come afterwards among the Cynics ; after Xenophon I shall take the Socratics proper, and so pass on to Plato. With Plato the ten schools begin: he was himself the founder of the First Academy.
This then is the order which I shall follow. Of those who bear the name of Socrates there is one, a historian, who wrote a geographical work upon Argos ; another, a Peripatetic philosopher of Bithynia ; a third, a poet who wrote epigrams; lastly, Socrates of Cos , who wrote on the names of the gods. The story goes that Socrates met him in a narrow passage, and that he stretched out his stick to bar the way, while he inquired where every kind of food was sold. Upon receiving a reply, he put another question, "And where do men become good and honourable?
He was the first to take notes of, and to give to the world, the conversation of Socrates , under the title of Memorabilia. Moreover, he was the first to write a history of philosophers. Aristippus , in the fourth book of his work On the Luxury of the Ancients, declares that he was enamoured of Clinias ,.
I would be content to be blind to everything else if I could but gaze on him alone. I am vexed with the night and with sleep because I cannot see Clinias , and most grateful to the day and the sun for showing him to me. He had an intimate friend named Proxenus , a Boeotian , a pupil of Gorgias of Leontini and a friend of Cyrus.
Proxenus , while living in Sardis at the court of Cyrus , wrote a letter to Xenophon at Athens , inviting him to come and seek the friendship of Cyrus. Xenophon complied and came into the presence of the god. He inquired, not whether he should go and seek service with Cyrus , but in what way he should do so. For this Socrates blamed him, yet at the same time he advised him to go. On his arrival at the court of Cyrus he became as warmly attached to him as Proxenus himself.
We have his own sufficient narrative of all that happened on the expedition and on the return home. He was, however, at enmity with Meno of Pharsalus , the mercenary general, throughout the expedition, and, by way of abuse, charges him with having a favourite older than himself. Again, he reproaches one Apollonides with having had his ears bored.
About this time he was banished by the Athenians for siding with Sparta. When he was in Ephesus and had a sum of money, he entrusted one half of it to Megabyzus , the priest of Artemis , to keep until his return, or if he should never return, to apply to the erection of a statue in honour of the goddess. But the other half he sent in votive offerings to Delphi. Next he came to Greece with Agesilaus , who had been recalled to carry on the war against Thebes. And the Lacedaemonians conferred on him a privileged position.
According to Demetrius of Magnesia he was accompanied by his wife Philesia , and, in a speech written for the freedman whom Xenophon prosecuted for neglect of duty, Dinarchus mentions that his two sons Gryllus and Diodorus , the Dioscuri as they were called, also went with him. Megabyzus having arrived to attend the festival, Xenophon received from him the deposit of money and bought and dedicated to the goddess an estate with a river running through, which bears the same name Selinus as the river at Ephesus. And from that time onward he hunted, entertained his friends, and worked at his histories without interruption.
Dinarchus , however, asserts that it was the Lacedaemonians who gave him a house and land. Meanwhile the Athenians passed a decree to assist Sparta , and Xenophon sent his sons to Athens to serve in the army in defence of Sparta. Diodorus came safe out of the battle without performing any distinguished service, and he had a son of the same name Gryllus as his brother. Gryllus was posted with the cavalry and, in the battle which took place about Mantinea , fought stoutly and fell, as Ephorus relates in his twenty-fifth book, Cephisodorus being in command of the cavalry and Hegesilaus commander-in-chief.
In this battle Epaminondas also fell. On this occasion Xenophon is said to have been sacrificing, with a chaplet on his head, which he removed when his son's death was announced. But afterwards, upon learning that he had fallen gloriously, he replaced the chaplet on his head.
Hermippus too, in his Life of Theophrastus , affirms that even Isocrates wrote an encomium on Gryllus. Timon , however, jeers at Xenophon in the lines: A feeble pair or triad of works, or even a greater number, such as would come from Xenophon or the might of Aeschines , that not unpersuasive writer. Such was his life. He flourished in the fourth year of the 94th Olympiad, and he took part in the expedition of Cyrus in the archonship of Xenaenetus in the year before the death of Socrates.
He died at Corinth , as is stated by Demetrius of Magnesia , obviously at an advanced age. He was a worthy man in general, particularly fond of horses and hunting, an able tactician as is clear from his writings, pious, fond of sacrificing, and an expert in augury from the victims; and he made Socrates his exact model. He wrote some forty books in all, though the division into books is not always the same, namely:.
On Horsemanship. On Hunting. On the Duty of a Cavalry General. A Defence of Socrates.
On Revenues. Hieron or Of Tyranny. The Constitutions of Athens and Sparta. Demetrius of Magnesia denies that the last of these works is by Xenophon. There is a tradition that he made Thucydides famous by publishing his history, which was unknown, and which he might have appropriated to his own use. By the sweetness of his narrative he earned the name of the Attic Muse. Hence he and Plato were jealous of each other, as will be stated in the chapter on Plato.
How fair was wisdom seen in Socrates! There is another on the circumstances of his death: Albeit the countrymen of Cranaus and Cecrops condemned thee, Xenophon , to exile on account of thy friendship for Cyrus , yet hospitable Corinth welcomed thee, so well content with the delights of that city wast thou, and there didst resolve to take up thy rest. There have been seven Xenophons: the first our subject himself; the second an Athenian , brother of Pythostratus, who wrote the Theseid , and himself the author, amongst other works, of a biography of Epaminondas and Pelopidas ; the third a physician of Cos ; the fourth the author of a history of Hannibal ; the fifth an authority on legendary marvels; the sixth a sculptor, of Paros ; the seventh a poet of the Old Comedy.
He was a citizen of Athens , industrious from his birth up. For this reason he never quitted Socrates ; hence Socrates ' remark, "Only the sausage-maker's son knows how to honour me. It was said maliciously — by Menedemus of Eretria in particular — that most of the dialogues which Aeschines passed off as his own were really dialogues of Socrates obtained by him from Xanthippe. Moreover, Aeschines made use of the Little Cyrus , the Lesser Heracles and the Alcibiades of Antisthenes as well as dialogues by other authors. However that may be, of the writings of Aeschines those stamped with a Socratic character are seven, namely Miltiades , which for that reason is somewhat weak; then Callias, Axiochus , Aspasia , Alcibiades , Telauges , and Rhinon.
They say that want drove him to Sicily to the court of Dionysius , and that Plato took no notice of him, but he was introduced to Dionysius by Aristippus , and on presenting certain dialogues received gifts from him. But he took fees from pupils, and subsequently composed forensic speeches for aggrieved clients. This is the point of Timon 's reference to him as "the might of Aeschines , that not unconvincing writer. Aristippus among others had suspicions of the genuineness of his dialogues.
At all events, as he was reading one at Megara , Aristippus rallied him by asking, "Where did you get that, you thief? There is also extant an epistle of Aeschines to Dionysius. That he had received a good rhetorical training is clear from his defence of the father of Phaeax the general, and from his defence of Dion. He is a close imitator of Gorgias of Leontini. Moreover, Lysias attacked him in a speech which he entitled "On dishonesty.
A single disciple of his is mentioned, Aristotle , whose nickname was "Story. There are eight men who have borne the name of Aeschines : 1 our subject himself; 2 the author of handbooks of rhetoric; 3 the orator who opposed Demosthenes ; 4 an Arcadian , a pupil of Isocrates ; 5 a Mitylenean whom they used to call the "scourge of rhetoricians"; 6 a Neapolitan, an Academic philosopher, a pupil and favourite of Melanthius of Rhodes ; 7 a Milesian who wrote upon politics; 8 a sculptor. Having come forward as a lecturer or sophist, as Phanias of Eresus , the Peripatetic , informs us, he was the first of the followers of Socrates to charge fees and to send money to his master.
And on one occasion the sum of twenty minae which he had sent was returned to him, Socrates declaring that the supernatural sign would not let him take it; the very offer, in fact, annoyed him. Xenophon was no friend to Aristippus ; and for this reason he has made Socrates direct against Aristippus the discourse in which he denounces pleasure. Not but what Theodorus in his work On Sects abuses him, and so does Plato in the dialogue On the Soul, as has been shown elsewhere.
Hence he found more favour than anybody else with Dionysius , because he could always turn the situation to good account. He derived pleasure from what was present, and did not toil to procure the enjoyment of something not present Hence Diogenes called him the king's poodle Timon , too, sneered at him for luxury in these words: Such was the delicate nature of Aristippus , who groped after error by touch.
He is said to have ordered a partridge to be bought at a cost of fifty drachmae, and, when someone censured him, he inquired, "Would not you have given an obol for it? To such lengths did he go both in choosing and in disdaining. Hence the remark of Strato , or by some accounts of Plato , "You alone are endowed with the gift to flaunt in robes or go in rags.
So that there is nothing to hinder a man living extravagantly and well. Some one said, "We plain men are not alarmed, and are you philosophers turned cowards? He was asked by some one in what way his son would be the better for being educated. He replied, "If nothing more than this, at all events, when in the theatre he will not sit down like a stone upon stone.
The father objected, "For that sum I can buy a slave. When he was reproached for employing a rhetorician to conduct his case, he made reply, "Well, if I give a dinner, I hire a cook. And Aristippus said, "You must have wished to confer distinction on the last place. And on his resenting this he replied, "I could not find any place more suitable. But, as none of the other animals are at any disadvantage on that account, consider whether it be not the same with man. Confound the effeminates who spoil for us the use of good perfume.
After an interval Aristippus asked him, "Can you join us today? For you appear to blame the cost and not the entertainment. Another version of the story attributes to him the further remark that it was better for the money to perish on account of Aristippus than for Aristippus to perish on account of the money. Dionysius once asked him what he was come for, and he said it was to impart what he had and obtain what he had not.
Others attribute this remark to Diogenes.
There was the empty hole, telling its own story. It would often seem to me as if one needed to have learned by heart both the words and the music of his creations before the performances; for without that—so it seemed to me—one may hear neither the words, nor even the music. I have done. If we are not to go to pieces or wither away, we must have some purpose in life; for no man can live for himself alone. No power of persuasion is comparable to the power possessed by a loaded pistol. In any hierarchy, each individual rises to his own level of incompetence, and then remains there. He was confirmed, rightly confirmed, in the command of the ship.
One day Dionysius over the wine commanded everybody to put on purple and dance. Plato declined, quoting the line: I could not stoop to put on women's robes. Aristippus , however, put on the dress and, as he was about to dance, was ready with the repartee: Even amid the Bacchic revelry True modesty will not be put to shame. And when some one jeered at him, he made reply, "It is not I who am to blame, but Dionysius who has his ears in his feet.
For the suitors won Melantho , Polydora and the rest of the handmaidens, but were anything but successful in their wooing of the mistress. For, he said, when Odysseus went down into the under-world, he saw nearly all the dead and made their acquaintance, but he never set eyes upon their queen herself. Again, when Aristippus was asked what are the subjects which handsome boys ought to learn, his reply was, "Those which will be useful to them when they are grown up.
This is stated by Diocles in his work On the Lives of Philosophers; other writers refer the anecdotes to Plato. After getting in a rage with Aeschines , he presently addressed him thus: "Are we not to make it up and desist from vapouring, or will you wait for some one to reconcile us over the wine-bowl? For the quarrel was of my beginning, you make the first move to friendship. There have been four men called Aristippus , 1 our present subject, 2 the author of a book about Arcadia , 3 the grandchild by a daughter of the first Aristippus , who was known as his mother's pupil, 4 a philosopher of the New Academy.
The following books by the Cyrenaic philosopher are in circulation: a history of Libya in three Books, sent to Dionysius ; one work containing twenty-five dialogues, some written in Attic , some in Doric , as follows:. To the shipwrecked. To the Exiles. To a Beggar. To Lais. To Porus. To Lais , On the Mirror. A Dream. To the Master of the Revels. To his Friends. To those who blame him for his love of old wine and of women. To those who blame him for extravagant living.
Letter to his daughter Arete. To one in training for Olympia. An Interrogatory. Another Interrogatory. An Occasional Piece to Dionysius. Another, On the Statue. Another, On the daughter of Dionysius. To one who considered himself slighted. To one who essayed to be a counsellor. Some also maintain that he wrote six Books of Essays; others, and among them Sosicrates of Rhodes , that he wrote none at all.
On Virtue. Introduction to Philosophy. The Ship-wrecked. The Exiles. Six books of Essays. To Socrates. If you don't know where you're aiming, you don't have a goal. My goal is to live my life in such a way that when I die, someone can say, she cared. To do something, however small, to make others happier and better, is the highest ambition, the most elevating hope, which can inspire a human being. No more duty can be urged upon those who are entering the great theater of life than simple loyalty to their best convictions.
There's not telling what you can do when you get inspired by them. There's no telling what you can do when you believe in them. There's no telling what will happen when you act upon them. If I have been of service, if I have glimpsed more of the nature and essence of ultimate good, if I am inspired to reach wider horizons of thought and action, if I am at peace with myself, it has been a successful day. This is the way of peace: Overcome evil with good, falsehood with truth, and hatred with love.
We shall find peace. We shall hear angels. We shall see the sky sparkling with diamonds. Peace is not something you wish for; It's something you make, Something you do, Something you are, And something you give away. Trust yourself. Create the kind of self that you will be happy to live with all your life.
Make the most of yourself by fanning the tiny, inner sparks of possibility into flames of achievement. Follow your heart, but be quiet for a while first. Ask questions, then feel the answer. Learn to trust your heart. Remember, there are no mistakes, only lessons. Love yourself, trust your choices, and everything is possible. Trust in what you love, continue to do it, and it will take you where you need to go. Dare to be true: nothing can need a lie: A fault, which needs it most, grows two thereby.
A person is not given integrity. It results from the relentless pursuit of honesty at all times. Honesty is the first chapter in the book of wisdom. Don't worry so much about your self- esteem. Worry more about your character. Integrity is its own reward. Compassion is the desire that moves the individual self to widen the scope of its self-concern to embrace the whole of the universal self.
Giving connects two people, the giver and the receiver, and this connection gives birth to a new sense of belonging. Compassion is the ultimate and most meaningful embodiment of emotional maturity. It is through compassion that a person achieves the highest peak and deepest reach in his or her search for self-fulfillment. If you realized how powerful your thoughts are, you would never think a negative thought. A word of encouragement during a failure is worth more than an hour of praise after success. One of the sanest, surest, and most generous joys of life comes from being happy over the good fortune of others.
Make it a habit to tell people thank you. To express your appreciation, sincerely and without the expectation of anything in return. Truly appreciate those around you, and you'll soon find many others around you. Truly appreciate life, and you'll find that you have more of it. Let me not hurt, by any selfish deed, Or thoughtless word, the heart of foe or friend; Nor would I pass, unseeing, worthy need, Or sin by silence when I should defend We must not, in trying to think about how we can make a big difference, ignore the small daily differences we can make which, over time, add up to big differences that we often cannot foresee.
Your vocation in life is where your greatest joy meets the world's greatest need. Each day when I awake I know I have one more day to make a difference in someone's life. Listening is such a simple act. It requires us to be present, and that takes practice, but we don't have to do anything else. We don't have to advise, or coach, or sound wise. We just have to be willing to sit there and listen.
Wisdom is the reward you get for a lifetime of listening when you'd have preferred to talk. Listening is an attitude of the heart, a genuine desire to be with another which both attracts and heals. The greatest compliment that was ever paid me was when one asked me what I thought, and attended to my answer. I remind myself every morning: Nothing I say this day will teach me anything. So if I'm going to learn, I must do it by listening.
Set out each day believing in your dreams. Know without a doubt that you were made for amazing things. The work goes on, the cause endures, the hope still lives and the dreams shall never die. One isn't necessarily born with courage, but one is born with potential. Without courage, we cannot practice any other virtue with consistency. We can't be kind, true, merciful, generous, or honest.
There is a wonderful mythical law of nature that the three things we crave most in life-happiness, freedom, and peace of mind-are always attained by giving them to someone else. Champions aren't made in gyms. Champions are made from something they have deep inside them -- a desire, a dream, a vision. They have to have the skill, and the will. But the will must be stronger than the skill. There is no teaching to compare with example. There's only one corner of the universe you can be certain of improving, and that's your own self. Love is an expression and assertion of self-esteem, a response to one's own values in the person of another.
Believe in your dreams and they may come true; believe in yourself and they will come true. The soul gives unity to what it looks at with love. Cooperation is the thorough conviction that nobody can get there unless everybody gets there. There can only be one state of mind as you approach any profound test; total concentration, a spirit of togetherness, and strength. One man may hit the mark, another blunder; but heed not these distinctions. Only from the alliance of the one, working with and through the other, are great things born.
There are no problems we cannot solve together, and very few that we can solve by ourselves. Never tell people how to do things. Tell them what to do and they will surprise you with their ingenuity. The creative is the place where no one else has ever been. You have to leave the city of your comfort and go into the wilderness of your intuition. What you'll discover will be wonderful. What you'll discover is yourself. The world is but a canvas to the imagination. The moment when you first wake up in the morning is the most wonderful of the twenty-four hours.
No matter how weary or dreary you may feel, you possess the certainty that, during the day that lies before you, absolutely anything may happen. And the fact that it practically always doesn't, matters not a jot. The possibility is always there. Friends are helpful not only because they will listen to us, but because they will laugh at us; Through them we learn a little objectivity, a little modesty, a little courtesy; We learn the rules of life and become better players of the game.
Get over the idea that only children should spend their time in study. Be a student so long as you still have something to learn, and this will mean all your life. Learn everything you can, anytime you can, from anyone you can -- there will always come a time when you will be grateful you did. I believe that the rendering of useful service is the common duty of mankind and that only in the purifying fire of sacrifice is the dross of selfishness consumed and the greatness of the human soul set free.
It is the supreme art of the teacher to awaken joy in creative expression and knowledge. We have all known the long loneliness and we have learned that the only solution is love and that love comes with community. Excellence is to do a common thing in an uncommon way. All the art of living lies in a fine mingling of letting go and holding on.
Because life is a living, breathing work of art, you are a painting as you go. Be a masterpiece. Drink in life. Laugh too loud. Compliment others constantly. Beauty is an experience, nothing else. It is not a fixed pattern or an arrangement of features. It is something felt, a glow or a communicated sense of fineness. A true hero is not someone who thinks about doing what is right, but one that simply does what is right without thinking!
Passively listening to gossip or negative talk is implied agreement. Patience -- the gift of being able to see past the emotion. Class never runs scared. It is sure-footed and confident, and it can handle whatever comes along. Class has a sense of humor. It knows that a good laugh is the best lubricant for oiling the machinery of human relations. Class never makes excuses.
It takes its lumps and learns from mistakes. Class knows that good manners are nothing more than a series of small sacrifices and minor inconveniences. Class bespeaks an aristocracy unrelated to ancestors or money. Some extremely wealthy people have no class at all, while others who are struggling to make ends meet are loaded with it. Class is real. You can't fake it. Class is comfortable in its own skin.
It never puts on airs. Class never tries to build itself up by tearing others down. Class is already up and need not attempt to look better by making others look worse. Class can walk with kings and keep its virtue and talk with crowds and keep the common touch. Everyone is comfortable with the person who has class because he is comfortable with himself.
If you have class, you've got it made. If you don't have class, no matter what else you have, it won't make up for it. A life full of enthusiasm, hope and contributions through one's own talent is a life well lived. One value that was sewn into the stitching of our character at a very early age had to do with our responsibility to help others We were expected to be of assistance to our neighbors It was a bit like mandatory community service. We were taught to respect everyone, especially those who were older and wiser than we were from whom we could learn. Having to apply and try out for something forces kids to take the time to think about and make decisions on what they feel is worth their time and effort.
It winds up being a great foreshadower and introduction of the reality of dealing with the competitiveness of life The focus, practice, and determination that this process requires are preparation for life's challenges and teach lessons on facing disappointment during the times when someone does not make the team. You are a master of the words you don't say and a slave to the ones you do.
I want to live long enough see the day the people in this world put aside their differences and work hand in hand to achieve that state of acceptance of themselves and their surroundings, also known as PEACE. No matter how much you plan, it is tenacity, unyielding desire to succeed, and the ability to cope with change that will eventually prevail. If you are content with the best you have done, you will never become the best you can be. Self-trust is the first secret of success, the belief that if you are here the authorities of the universe put you here, and for cause, or with some task strictly appointed you in your constitution, and so long as you work at that you are well and successful.
Donald Walters]. In all affairs it's a healthy thing now and then to hang a question mark on the things you have long taken for granted. I've learned from experience that the greater part of our happiness or misery depends on our dispositions and not on our circumstances. It takes its lumps and learns from mistakes Let us tenderly and kindly cherish, therefore, the means of knowledge. Let us dare to read, think, speak, and write. An invasion of armies can be resisted, but not an idea whose time has come.
You cannot escape the results of your thoughts. Whatever your present environment may be, you will fall, remain or rise with your thoughts, your vision, your ideal. You will become as small as your controlling desire; as great as your dominant aspiration. You've got to have a dream, if you want to have a dream come true. He is rich who is content with the least; for contentment is the wealth of nature. When I started counting my blessings, my whole life turned around.
Anyone can carry his burden, however hard, until nightfall. Anyone can do his work, however hard, for one day. Anyone can live sweetly, patiently, lovingly, purely, till the sun goes down. And this is all life really means. Your purpose may not always be obvious, but always remember that you do have a purpose. I've always thought that a big laugh is a really loud noise from the soul saying, 'Ain't that the truth.
When you have once seen the glow of happiness on the face of a beloved person, you know that a man can have no vocation but to awaken that light on [all] the faces surrounding him. Every heart that has beat strong and cheerfully has left a hopeful impulse behind it in the world, and bettered the tradition of mankind. No act of kindness is too small. The gift of kindness may start as a small ripple that over time can turn into a tidal wave affecting the lives of many.
A good friend is a connection to life, a tie to the past, a road to the future, the key to sanity in a totally insane world. There is one thing one has to have: either a soul that is cheerful by nature, or a soul made cheerful by work, love, art, and knowledge. Being rich of heart makes you wealthy beyond compare. The best part of life is not just surviving, but thriving with passion and compassion and humor and style and generosity and kindness. Think left and think right and think low and think high. Oh, the thinks you can think up if only you try!
Our success as a nation is not measured by how many years we have governed or how many wars we have won. It is measured by the quality of life which we have created for the society that our ideals were founded upon. He who has faith has A sense of humor Joy in one's heart and some laughter on one's lips is a sign that the person down deep has a pretty good grasp of life. You don't have to accept the invitation to get angry. Instead, practice forgiveness, empathy and encouragement. Blessed is the season which engages the whole world in a conspiracy of love.
We are each gifted in a unique and important way. It is our privilege and our adventure to discover our own special light. There is neither happiness nor unhappiness in this world; there is merely the comparison of one state to the other. Only a man who has felt ultimate despair is capable of feeling ultimate bliss. Every day you have the opportunity to learn and experience some-thing and some-one new. Seize the opportunity. Learn and experience everything you can, and use it to change the world. There is no beautifier of complexion, or form, or behavior, like the wish to scatter joy and not pain around us.
We must be as courteous to a man as we are to a picture, which we are willing to give the advantage of a good light. Love is patient, Love is Kind, it does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. Participate joyfully in the sorrows of the world. We cannot cure the world of sorrows, but we can choose to live in joy. You're alive. Do something. The directive in life, the moral imperative was so uncomplicated.
It could be expressed in single words, not complete sentences. It sounded like this: Look. I appreciate people who are civil, whether they mean it or not. I think: Be civil. Do not cherish your opinion over my feelings. There's a vanity to candor that isn't really worth it. Be kind. The key to immortality is first living a life worth remembering. You have only always to do what is right. It will become easier by practice, and you enjoy in the midst of your trials the pleasure of an approving conscience.
The first step to getting the things you want out of life is this: Decide what you want. What is defeat? Nothing but education; nothing but the first step to something better. When there is no where else to turn, turn inward. Enter into the sacred silence of your soul and ask for healing, guidance and personal peace. Our soul desires to be understanding, our ego is only concerned with being understood. When you are being understanding you are connected to your soul. Love is friendship that has caught fire. It is quiet understanding, mutual confidence, sharing and forgiving.
It is loyalty through good and bad times. It settles for less than perfection and makes allowances for human weaknesses. Courage is not the absence of fear, but rather the judgment that something else is more important than fear. Trials, temptations, disappointments -- all these are helps instead of hindrances, if one uses them rightly. They not only test the fiber of character but strengthen it Every trial endured and weathered in the right spirit makes a soul nobler and stronger than it was before. Call it a clan, call it a network, call it a tribe, call it a family.
Whatever you call it, whoever you are, you need one. A true friend freely, advises justly, assists readily, adventures boldly, takes all patiently, defends courageously, and continues a friend unchangeably. A leader is someone who demonstrates what's possible.
After all these years, I am still involved in the process of self-discovery. It's better to explore life and make mistakes than to play it safe. Mistakes are part of the dues one pays for a full life. Society is joint action and cooperation in which each participant sees the other partner's success as a means for the attainment of his own. Despair shows us the limit of our imagination. Imaginations shared create collaboration, and collaboration creates community, and community inspires social change. Love the moment.
Flowers grow out of dark moments. Therefore, each moment is vital. It affects the whole. Life is a succession of such moments and to live each, is to succeed. Wherever there is a human in need, there is an opportunity for kindness and to make a difference. Don't waste life in doubts and fears; spend yourself on the work before you, well assured that the right performance of this hour's duties will be the best preparation for the hours and ages that will follow it. Peace holds within itself trust in the Lord, the trust that He governs all things and provides all things, and that He leads towards an end that is good.
Life is just a chance to grow a soul. I like living. I have sometimes been wildly, despairingly, acutely miserable, racked with sorrow, but through it all I still know quite certainly that just to be alive is a grand thing. Love life and life will love you back. Love people and they will love you back. Nobody in life gets exactly what they thought they were going to get. But if you work really hard and you're kind, amazing things will happen. Failing to prepare is like preparing to fail. Life is short and we have never too much time for gladdening the hearts of those who are traveling the dark journey with us.
Oh be swift to love, make haste to be kind. Your living is determined not so much by what life brings to you as by the attitude you bring to life; not so much by what happens to you as by the way your mind looks at what happens. Rejoice in the things that are present; all else is beyond thee.
Every now and again take a good look at something not made with hands: a mountain, a star, the turn of a stream. There will come to you wisdom and patience and solace and, above all, the assurance that you are not alone in the world. A man knows he has found his vocation when he stops thinking about how to live, and begins to live.
A person who doubts himself is like a man who would enlist in the ranks of his enemies and bear arms against himself. He makes his failure certain by himself being the first person to be convinced of it. All human wisdom is summed up in two words; wait and hope. Hope is always available to us. When we feel defeated, we need only take a deep breath and say, "Yes," and hope will reappear.
I am happy for who I am, and what I have come to be. I look forward to whatever else that may come with positivity. The giving of love is an education in itself. Never talk defeat. Use words like hope, belief, faith, victory. Judge me not by physical size or appearance, but judge me by the size of my character. A pessimist is one who makes difficulties of his opportunities and an optimist is one who makes opportunities of his difficulties. Our deepest fear is not that we are inadequate. Our deepest fear is that we are powerful beyond measure. It is our light, not our darkness, that most frightens us.
Your playing small does not serve the world. There is nothing enlightened about shrinking so that other people won't feel insecure around you. We are all meant to shine as children do. It's not just in some of us; it is in everyone. And as we let our own lights shine, we unconsciously give other people permission to do the same. As we are liberated from our own fear, our presence automatically liberates others.
It always seems impossible until its done. The time you enjoy wasting is not wasted time. You know you're in love when you don't want to fall asleep because reality is finally better than your dreams. When you are kind to someone in trouble, you hope they'll remember and be kind to someone else. And it'll become like a wildfire.
Love is always bestowed as a gift -- freely, willingly, and without expectation. We don't love to be loved; we love to love. Let go. And remind yourself that this very moment is the only one you know you have for sure. Dig within.
Within is the wellspring of Good; and it is always ready to bubble up, if you just dig. Kindness is an inner desire that makes us want to do good things even if we do not get anything in return. It is the joy of our life to do them. When we do good things from this inner desire, there is kindness in everything we think, say, want and do. When you do nothing, you feel overwhelmed and powerless. But when you get involved, you feel the sense of hope and accomplishment that comes from knowing you are working to make things better.
Life is less about what you do, and more about how and why you do those things. This is called character. We tend to forget that happiness doesn't come as a result of getting something we don't have, but rather of recognizing and appreciating what we do have. When what we want to do and what we ought to do are two different things, character is built in the choice we make. What first we find impossible, we later deem unlikely, and eventually accept as inevitable.
What greater thing is there for human souls than to feel that they are joined for life -- to be with each other in silent unspeakable memories. Let the beauty that we love be what we do. It's highly virtuous to say we'll be good, but we can't do it all at once, and it takes a long pull, a strong pull, and a pull all together before some of us even get our feet set in the right way.
If your dream requires patience, give it. Be careful of your actions. You never know when your creating a memory. What should young people do with their lives today? Many things, obviously. But the most daring thing is to create stable communities in which the terrible disease of loneliness can be cured. We can never get a re-creation of community and heal our society without giving our citizens a sense of belonging. Among the things you can give and still keep are your word, a smile, and a grateful heart.
Know in your heart that all things are possible. We couldn't conceive of a miracle if none had ever happened. I don't measure a man's success by how high he climbs but how high he bounces when he hits bottom. If you don't stand for something, you will fall for anything. When your brook dries up and disappointment comes your way, you do not necessarily need to assume that you did something wrong. Stop thinking gratitude as a buy product of your circumstances and start thinking of it as a world view. Live today.
Not yesterday. Not tomorrow. Just today. Inhabit your moments. Don't rent them out to tomorrow. When obstacles arise, you change your direction to reach your goal, you do not change your decision to get there. I guess I can't really change the past since it's now history and I certainly cannot change tomorrow, for I am not promised it, but I can change the way I live today. This realization in itself is the root of not only who I want to be tomorrow, but who I am working on being today. Never again do I want to fail anything without an attempt; I want push myself to my fullest potential, and if that means that I fall a few times along the way then so be it, but I will no longer allow myself to just give up.
I deserve better, and it is time that I start believing that. He who wishes to secure the good of others, has already secured his own. The longer I live, the more I realize the impact of attitude on life. Dare to reach out your hand into the darkness, to pull another hand into the light.
Do not let what you cannot do interfere with what you can do. Love never reasons but profusely gives; gives, like a thoughtless prodigal, its all, and trembles lest it has done too little. Hope is not pretending that troubles don't exist. It is the hope that they won't last forever.
That hurts will be healed and difficulties overcome. That we will be led out of the darkness and into the sunshine. It ain't about how hard you can hit. Its about how hard you can get hit, and how much you can take, and keep moving forward. Love recognizes no barriers. It jumps hurdles, leaps fences, penetrates walls to arrive at its destination, full of hope. Who will tell whether one happy moment of love or the joy of breathing or walking on a bright morning and smelling the fresh air, is not worth all the suffering and effort which life implies.
I count life just a stuff, to try the soul's strength on. Hold fast to dreams. The appearance of pessimistic philosophies is not at all the sign of great and dreadful miseries; for these interrogative marks regarding the worth of life appear in periods when the refinement and alleviation of existence already deem the unavoidable gnat-stings of the soul and body as altogether too bloody and wicked; and in the poverty of actual experiences of pain, would now like to make painful general ideas appear as suffering of the worst kind.
Magnanimity and allied Qualities. Their satisfactions are so rapid and violent that satiety, aversion, and flight into the antithetical taste, immediately follow upon them: in this contrast the convulsion of feeling liberates itself, in one person by sudden coldness, in another by laughter, and in a third by tears and self-sacrifice. The magnanimous person appears to me—at least that kind of magnanimous person who has always made most impression—as a man with the strongest thirst for vengeance, to whom a gratification presents itself close at hand, and who already drinks it off in imagination so copiously, thoroughly, and to the last drop, that an excessive, rapid disgust follows this rapid licentiousness;—he now elevates himself "above himself," as one says, and forgives his enemy, yea, blesses and honours him.
With this violence done to himself, however, with this mockery of his impulse to revenge, even still so powerful, he merely yields to the new impulse, the disgust which has become powerful, and does this just as impatiently and licentiously, as a short time previously he forestalled , and as it were exhausted, the joy of revenge with his fantasy. In magnanimity 87 there is the same amount of egoism as in revenge, but a different quality of egoism. The Argument of Isolation. What is really feared there? Sense for Truth.
That is the limit of my "sense for truth": for bravery has there lost its right. What others Know of us. One day it flashes upon our mind what others know of us or think they know —and then we acknowledge that it is the more powerful. We get on with our bad conscience more easily than with our bad reputation. Where Goodness Begins. Consequently, the duller the eye so much the further does goodness extend!
Hence the eternal cheerfulness of the populace and of children! Hence the gloominess and grief allied to the bad conscience of great thinkers.
The Consciousness of Appearance. I have discovered for myself that the old humanity and animality, yea, the collective primeval age, and the past of all sentient being, continues to meditate, love, hate, and reason in me,—I have suddenly awoke in the midst of this dream, but merely to the consciousness that I just dream, and that I must dream on in order not to perish; just as the sleep-walker must dream on in order not to tumble down. What is it that is now "appearance" to me!
Verily, not the antithesis of any kind of essence,—what knowledge can I assert of any kind of essence whatsoever, except merely the 89 predicates of its appearance! Verily not a dead mask which one could put upon an unknown X, and which to be sure one could also remove! Appearance is for me the operating and living thing itself; which goes so far in its self-mockery as to make me feel that here there is appearance, and Will o' the Wisp, and spirit-dance, and nothing more,—that among all these dreamers, I also, the "thinker," dance my dance, that the thinker is a means of prolonging further the terrestrial dance, and in so far is one of the masters of ceremony of existence, and that the sublime consistency and connectedness of all branches of knowledge is perhaps, and will perhaps, be the best means for maintaining the universality of the dreaming, the complete, mutual understandability of all those dreamers, and thereby the duration of the dream.
The Ultimate Nobility of Character. Certainly not that he makes sacrifices; even the frantic libertine makes sacrifices. Certainly not that he generally follows his passions; there are contemptible passions. Certainly not that he does something for others and without selfishness; perhaps the effect of selfishness is precisely at its greatest in the noblest persons. Hitherto, therefore, it has been the rare in man, and the unconsciousness of this rareness, that has made men noble.
Here, however, let us consider that everything ordinary, immediate, and indispensable, in short, what has been most preservative of the species, and generally the rule in mankind hitherto, has been judged unreasonable and calumniated in its entirety by this standard, in favour of the exceptions. To become the advocate of the rule—that may perhaps be the ultimate form and refinement in which nobility of character will reveal itself on earth.
The Desire for Suffering. Distress is necessary! Hence the cry of the politicians, hence the many false, trumped-up, exaggerated "states of distress" of all possible kinds, and the blind readiness to believe in them. This young world desires that there should arrive or appear from the outside —not happiness—but misfortune; and their imagination is already 91 busy beforehand to form a monster out of it, so that they may afterwards be able to fight with a monster. If these distress-seekers felt the power to benefit themselves, to do something for themselves from internal sources, they would also understand how to create a distress of their own, specially their own, from internal sources.
Their inventions might then be more refined, and their gratifications might sound like good music: while at present they fill the world with their cries of distress, and consequently too often with the feeling of distress in the first place! They do not know what to make of themselves—and so they paint the misfortune of others on the wall; they always need others!
And always again other others! To the Realists. But are not ye also in your unveiled condition still extremely passionate and dusky beings compared with the fish, and still all too like an enamoured artist? Ye still carry about with you the valuations of things which had their origin in the passions and infatuations of earlier centuries! There is still a secret and ineffaceable drunkenness embodied in your sobriety!
Your love of "reality," for example—oh, that is an old, primitive "love"! In every feeling, in every sense-impression, there is a portion of this old love: and similarly also some kind of fantasy, prejudice, irrationality, ignorance, fear, and whatever else has become mingled and woven into it. There is that mountain! There is that cloud! What is "real" in them? Remove the phantasm and the whole human element therefrom, ye sober ones! Yes, if ye could do that! If ye could forget your origin, your past, your preparatory schooling,—your whole history as man and beast!
There is no "reality" for us—nor for you either, ye sober ones,—we are far from being so alien to one another as ye suppose, and perhaps our good-will to get beyond drunkenness is just as respectable as your belief that ye are altogether incapable of drunkenness. Only as Creators! The reputation, the name and appearance, the importance, the usual measure and weight of things—each being in origin most frequently an error and arbitrariness thrown over the things like a garment, and quite alien to their essence and even to their exterior—have gradually, by the belief therein and its continuous growth from generation to generation, grown as it were on-and-into things and become their very body; the appearance at the very beginning becomes almost always the essence in the end, and operates as the essence!
What a fool he would be who would think it enough to refer here to this origin and this nebulous veil of illusion, in order to annihilate that which virtually passes for the world—namely, so-called "reality"! It is only as 97 creators that we can annihilate! We Artists! We then shut our ears against all physiology, and we decree in secret that "we will hear nothing of the fact that man is something else than soul and form!
The "law of nature" sounded to him as blasphemy against God; in truth he would too willingly have seen the whole of mechanics traced back to moral acts of volition and arbitrariness:—but 98 because nobody could render him this service, he concealed nature and mechanism from himself as best he could, and lived in a dream. Oh, those men of former times understood how to dream , and did not need first to go to sleep! It suffices to love, to hate, to desire, and in general to feel,— immediately the spirit and the power of the dream come over us, and we ascend, with open eyes and indifferent to all danger, the most dangerous paths, to the roofs and towers of fantasy, and without any giddiness, as persons born for climbing—we the night-walkers by day!
We artists! We concealers of naturalness! We moon-struck and God-struck ones! We dead-silent, untiring wanderers on heights which we do not see as heights, but as our plains, as our places of safety! Women and their Effect in the Distance. Am I only ear, and nothing else besides? Here I stand in the midst of the surging of the breakers, whose white flames fork up to my feet;—from all sides there is howling, threatening, crying, and screaming at me, while in the lowest depths the old earth-shaker sings his aria, hollow like a roaring bull; he beats such an earth-shaker's measure thereto, that even the hearts of these weathered rock-monsters tremble at the sound.
Then, suddenly, as if born out of nothingness, 99 there appears before the portal of this hellish labyrinth, only a few fathoms distant,—a great sailing-ship gliding silently along like a ghost. Oh, this ghostly beauty! With what enchantment it seizes me! Has all the repose and silence in the world embarked here? Does my happiness itself sit in this quiet place, my happier ego, my second immortalised self? Still not dead, yet also no longer living? As a ghost-like, calm, gazing, gliding, sweeping, neutral being?
Similar to the ship, which, with its white sails, like an immense butterfly, passes over the dark sea! Passing over existence! That is it! That would be it! All great noise causes one to place happiness in the calm and the distance. When a man is in the midst of his hubbub, in the midst of the breakers of his plots and plans, he there sees perhaps calm, enchanting beings glide past him, for whose happiness and retirement he longs— they are women.
He almost thinks that there with the women dwells his better self; that in these calm places even the loudest breakers become still as death, and life itself a dream of life. But still! My noble enthusiast, there is also in the most beautiful sailing-ship so much noise and bustling, and alas, so much petty, pitiable bustling! The enchantment and the most powerful effect of women is, to use the language of philosophers, an effect at a distance, an actio in distans ; there belongs thereto, however, primarily and above all,— distance!
In Honour of Friendship. The philosopher has lowered himself in my estimation, for he showed that he did not know one of the two highest sentiments—and in fact the higher of them! Woman in Music. Are they not the same winds that fill the churches and give women amorous thoughts? And this present is often accepted without putting the recipient under such deep obligation as the giver supposed,—a very melancholy story! The Strength of the Weak. They thus defend themselves against the strong and all "rights of might. It was precisely his delight that she seemed so fitful and absolutely incomprehensible!
He had rather too much steady weather in himself already! Would she not do well to feign her old character? Does not—love itself advise her to do so? Will and Willingness. All human beings are innocent of their existence, women, however, are doubly innocent; who could have enough of salve and gentleness for them! What about gentleness! Capacity for Revenge. Would a woman be able to captivate us or, as people say, to "fetter" us whom we did not credit with knowing how to employ the dagger any kind of dagger skilfully against us under certain circumstances? Or against herself; which in a certain case might be the severest revenge the Chinese revenge.
The Mistresses of the Masters. To be sure, it is not the intention of the theatre that such voices should give such a conception of women; they are usually intended to represent the ideal male lover, for example, a Romeo; but, to judge by my experience, the theatre regularly miscalculates here, and the musician also, who expects such effects from such a voice. People do not believe in these lovers; these voices still contain a tinge of the motherly and housewifely character, and most of all when love is in their tone.
On Female Chastity. All the world is agreed to educate them with as much ignorance as possible in eroticis , and to inspire their soul with a profound shame of such things, and the extremest impatience and horror at the suggestion of them. It is really here only that all the "honour" of woman is at stake; what would one not forgive them in other respects! But here they are intended to remain ignorant to the very backbone:—they are intended to have neither eyes, ears, words, nor thoughts for this, their "wickedness"; indeed knowledge here is already evil.
To be hurled as with an awful thunderbolt into reality and knowledge with marriage—and indeed by him whom they most love and esteem: to have to encounter love and shame in contradiction, yea, to have to feel rapture, abandonment, duty, sympathy, and fright at the unexpected proximity of God and animal, and whatever else besides!
Even the sympathetic curiosity of the wisest discerner of men does not suffice to divine how this or that woman gets along with the solution of this enigma and the enigma of this solution; what dreadful, far-reaching suspicions must awaken thereby in the poor unhinged soul; and forsooth, how the ultimate philosophy and scepticism of the woman casts anchor at this point! There is no paternal love among them, but there is such a thing as love of the children of a beloved, and habituation to them. In the young, the females find gratification for their lust of dominion; the young are a property, an occupation, something quite comprehensible to them, with which they can chatter: all this conjointly is maternal love,—it is to be compared to the love of the artist for his work.
Pregnancy has made the females gentler, more expectant, more timid, more submissively inclined; and similarly intellectual pregnancy engenders the character of the contemplative, who are allied to women in character:—they are the masculine mothers. Saintly Cruelty. The Unsuccessful. The Third Sex.
A small woman is never beautiful—said old Aristotle. The greatest Danger. Incipient insanity has hovered, and hovers continually over mankind as its greatest danger: that is precisely the breaking out of inclination in feeling, seeing, and hearing; the enjoyment of the unruliness of the mind; the delight in human unreason. It is not truth and certainty that is the antithesis of the world of the insane, but the universality and all-obligatoriness of a belief, in short, non-voluntariness in forming opinions.
And the greatest labour of human beings hitherto has been to agree with one another regarding a great many things, and to impose upon themselves a law of agreement —indifferent whether these things are true or false. This is the discipline of the mind which has preserved mankind;—but the counter-impulses are still so powerful that one can really speak of the future of mankind with little confidence.
The ideas of things still continually shift and move, and will perhaps alter more than ever in the future; it is continually the most select spirits themselves who strive against universal obligatoriness—the investigators of truth above all! The accepted belief, as the belief of all the world, continually engenders a disgust and a new longing in the more ingenious minds; and already the slow tempo which it demands for all intellectual processes the imitation of the tortoise, which is here recognised as the rule makes the artists and poets runaways:—it is in these impatient spirits that a downright delight in delirium breaks out, because delirium has such a joyful tempo!
Virtuous intellects, therefore, are needed—ah! I want to use the least ambiguous word,— virtuous stupidity is needed, imperturbable conductors of the slow spirits are needed, in order that the faithful of the great collective belief may remain with one another and dance their dance further: it is a necessity of the first importance that here enjoins and demands.
We others are the exceptions and the danger ,—we eternally need protection! The Animal with good Conscience. Is it because shame is lacking here, and because the vulgar always comes forward just as sure and certain of itself as anything noble, lovely, and passionate in the same kind of music or romance? Bad taste has its rights like good taste, and even a prerogative over the latter when it is the great requisite, the sure satisfaction, and as it were a universal language, an immediately intelligible mask and attitude; the excellent, select taste on the other hand has always something of a seeking, tentative character, not fully certain that it understands,—it is never, and has never been popular!
The masque is and remains popular! So let all this masquerade run along in the melodies and cadences, in the leaps and merriment of the rhythm of these operas! Quite the ancient life! What does one understand of it, if one does not understand the delight in the masque, the good conscience of all masquerade!
Here is the bath and the refreshment of the ancient spirit:—and perhaps this bath was still more necessary for the rare and sublime natures of the ancient world than for the vulgar. There is shame in it, the artist has lowered himself in his own sight, and could not even avoid blushing: we are ashamed with him, and are so hurt because we surmise that he believed he had to lower himself on our account. What we should be Grateful for.
It is thus only that we get beyond some of the paltry details in ourselves! Without that art we should be nothing but fore-ground, and would live absolutely under the spell of the perspective which makes the closest and the commonest seem immensely large and like reality in itself. The Charm of Imperfection. His work never expresses altogether what he would really like to express, what he would like to have seen : he appears to have had the foretaste of a vision and never the vision itself:—but an extraordinary longing for this vision has remained in his soul; and from this he derives his equally extraordinary eloquence of longing and craving.
With this he raises those who listen to him above his work and above all "works," and gives them wings to rise higher than hearers have ever risen before, thus making them poets and seers themselves; they then show an admiration for the originator of their happiness, as if he had led them immediately to the vision of his holiest and ultimate verities, as if he had reached his goal, and had actually seen and communicated his vision.
It is to the advantage of his reputation that he has not really arrived at his goal. Art and Nature. And so they required good talking even from passion on the stage, and submitted to the unnaturalness of dramatic verse with delight:—in nature, forsooth, passion is so sparing of words! Or if it finds words, so embarrassed and irrational and a shame to itself! We have now, all of us, thanks to the Greeks, accustomed ourselves to this unnaturalness on the stage, as we endure that other unnaturalness, the singing passion, and willingly endure it, thanks to the Italians.
This kind of deviation from nature is perhaps the most agreeable repast for man's pride: he loves art generally on account of it, as the expression of high, heroic unnaturalness and convention. One rightly objects to the dramatic poet when he does not transform everything into reason and speech, but always retains a remnant of silence :—just as one is dissatisfied with an operatic musician who cannot find a melody for the highest emotion, but only an emotional, "natural" stammering and crying. Here nature has to be contradicted! Here the common charm of illusion has to give place to a higher charm!
The Greeks go far, far in this direction—frightfully far! As they constructed the stage as narrow as possible and dispensed with all the effect of deep backgrounds, as they made pantomime and easy motion impossible to the actor, and transformed him into a solemn, stiff, masked bogey, so they have also deprived passion itself of its deep background, and have dictated to it a law of fine talk; indeed, they have really done everything to counteract the elementary effect of representations that inspire pity and terror: they did not want pity and terror ,—with due deference, with the highest deference to Aristotle!
Let us but look at the Grecian tragic poets with respect to what most excited their diligence, their inventiveness, and their emulation,—certainly it was not the intention of subjugating the spectators by emotion! The Athenian went to the theatre to hear fine talking! And fine talking was arrived at by Sophocles! Perhaps they have only lacked courage to express fully their extreme contempt for words: a little additional insolence in Rossini, and he would have allowed la-la-la-la to be sung throughout—and it might have been the rational course!
The personages of the opera are not meant to be believed "in their words," but in their tones! That is the difference, that is the fine unnaturalness on account of which people go to the opera! Even the recitativo secco is not really intended to be heard as words and text: this kind of half-music is meant rather in the first place to give the musical ear a little repose the repose from melody , as from the sublimest, and on that account the most straining enjoyment of this art ,—but very soon something different results, namely, an increasing impatience, an increasing resistance, a new longing for entire music, for melody.
Is it perhaps the same? Perhaps otherwise? It would often seem to me as if one needed to have learned by heart both the words and the music of his creations before the performances; for without that—so it seemed to me—one may hear neither the words, nor even the music. Grecian Taste. In Sophocles at least "everything is proved. Esprit Un-Grecian. Logic appears to them as necessary as bread and water, but also like these as a kind of prison-fare, as soon as it is to be taken pure and by itself.
In good society one must never want to be in the right absolutely and solely, as all pure logic requires; hence, the little dose of irrationality in all French esprit. But people will not readily believe these tenets of mine, and how much of the kind I have still on my soul! The French of Corneille, and even the French of the Revolution, appropriated Roman antiquity in a manner for which we would no longer have the courage—owing to our superior historical sense.
How they translated these writings into the Roman present! How they wiped away intentionally and unconcernedly the wing-dust of the butterfly moment! They seem to us to ask: "Should we not make the old new for ourselves, and adjust ourselves to it? Should we not be allowed to inspire this dead body with our soul?
In fact, they conquered when they translated,—not only in that they omitted the historical: no, they added also allusions to the present; above all, they struck out the name of the poet and put their own in its place—not with the feeling of theft, but with the very best conscience of the imperium Romanum. The Origin of Poetry. The wildly beautiful irrationality of poetry refutes you, ye utilitarians! The wish to get rid of utility in some way—that is precisely what has elevated man, that is what has inspired him to morality and art! In the old times which called poetry into being, people had still utility in view with respect to it, and a very important utility—at the time when rhythm was introduced into speech, the force which arranges all the particles of the sentence anew, commands the choosing of the words, recolours the thought, and makes it more obscure, more foreign, and more distant: to be sure a superstitious utility!
It was intended that a human entreaty should be more profoundly impressed upon the Gods by virtue of rhythm, after it had been observed that men could remember a verse better than an unmetrical speech. It was likewise thought that people could make themselves audible at greater distances by the rhythmical beat; the rhythmical prayer seemed to come nearer to the ear of the Gods. Above all, however, people wanted to have the advantage of the elementary conquest which man experiences in himself when he hears music: rhythm is a constraint; it produces an unconquerable desire to yield, to join in; not only the step of the foot, but also the soul itself follows the measure,—probably the soul of the Gods also, as people thought!
They attempted, therefore, to constrain the Gods by rhythm and to exercise a power over them; they threw poetry around the Gods like a magic noose. There was a still more wonderful idea, and it has perhaps operated most powerfully of all in the originating of poetry. Among the Pythagoreans it made its appearance as a philosophical doctrine and as an artifice of teaching: but long before there were philosophers music was acknowledged to possess the power of unburdening the emotions, of purifying the soul, of soothing the ferocia animi —and this was owing to the rhythmical element in music.
When the proper tension and harmony of the soul were lost a person had to dance to the measure of the singer,—that was the recipe of this medical art. By means of it Terpander quieted a tumult, Empedocles calmed a maniac, Damon purged a love-sick youth; by means of it even the maddened, revengeful Gods were treated for the purpose of a cure. First of all, it was by driving the frenzy and wantonness of their emotions to the highest pitch, by making the furious mad, and the revengeful intoxicated with vengeance:—all the orgiastic cults seek to discharge the ferocia of a deity all at once and thus make an orgy, so that the deity may feel freer and quieter afterwards, and leave man in peace.
Melos , according to its root, signifies a soothing means, not because the song is gentle itself, but because its after-effect makes gentle. And as often as a person acts he has occasion to sing, every action is dependent on the assistance of spirits: magic song and incantation appear to be the original form of poetry. When verse also came to be used in oracles—the Greeks said that the hexameter was invented at Delphi,—the rhythm was here also intended to exercise a compulsory influence. To make a prophecy—that means originally according to what seems to me the probable derivation of the Greek word to determine something; people thought they could determine the future by winning Apollo over to their side: he who, according to the most ancient idea, is far more than a foreseeing deity.
According as the formula is pronounced with literal and rhythmical correctness, it determines the future: the formula, however, is the invention of Apollo, who as the God of rhythm, can also determine the goddesses of fate. People could do everything with it: they could make labour go on magically; they could compel a God to appear, to be near at hand, and listen to them; they could arrange the future for themselves according to their will; they could unburden their own souls of any kind of excess of anxiety, of mania, of sympathy, of revenge , and not only their own soul, but the souls of the most evil spirits,—without verse a person was nothing, by means of verse a person became almost a God.
Such a fundamental feeling no longer allows itself to be fully eradicated,—and even now, after millenniums of long labour in combating such superstition, the very wisest of us occasionally becomes the fool of rhythm, be it only that one perceives a thought to be truer when it has a metrical form and approaches with a divine hopping. Is it not a very funny thing that the most serious philosophers, however anxious they are in other respects for strict certainty, still appeal to poetical sayings in order to give their thoughts force and credibility?
For, as Homer says, "The singers speak much falsehood! The Good and the Beautiful. Those select things and conditions whose value for human happiness is regarded as secure and determined, are the objects of artists: they are ever lying in wait to discover such things, to transfer them into the domain of art. I mean to say that they are not themselves the valuers of happiness and of the happy ones, but they always press close to these valuers with the greatest curiosity and longing, in order immediately to use their valuations advantageously. As besides their impatience, they have also the big lungs of heralds and the feet of runners, they are likewise always among the first to glorify the new excellency, and often seem to be those who first of all called it good and valued it as good.